In the addiction world, being in recovery means being substance-free. But it also means having “a better quality of life,” and that is the underlying theme of all recovery, including recovery from mental illness, says Laurence Miller, M.D., medical director for the division of behavioral health services in the Arkansas Department of Human Services, and professor of psychiatry at the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences.
The concept of peers – people who have the same condition as the people they are helping – originated in the addiction field, because the notion of recovery started there, says Miller, who is a spokesman for the American Psychiatric Association. “When I was in training, there was no such thing as recovery,” he says. “We talked about stabilizing patients so they could leave the hospital and not come to the clinic so much, but that was it.”
What recovery really means is “having a life like everyone else,” says Miller. “With newer medications, there is the opportunity to have a full life, not just stability,” he says. “People can have jobs, go to school, have relationships.”
Health care reform
And it is this full life – wellness – that is the reason why peers are an essential part of health care reform. The Affordable Care Act emphasizes wellness promotion and prevention and, for the mental health field, that means diversion away from emergency rooms and hospitals, says Harvey Rosenthal, executive director of the New York Association of Psychiatric Rehabilitation Services (NYAPRS). This gives peer services the opportunity to develop sophisticated models around wellness coaching, crisis respite, warm-line services, peer bridging, and peer-recovery centers, he says.
State Medicaid agencies and private managed-care organizations are encouraging and expanding the use of peer services, says Rosenthal. About 17 years ago NYAPRS developed a “peer bridger” model, in which peers are trained to provide support to people who have had long stays or frequent admissions to state hospitals. The model aims at helping these people make a smooth and lasting transition to the community. “We help them get out of the hospital and stay out of the hospital,” says Rosenthal, who was hospitalized in 1969, and ended up working in a state hospital and then in a clubhouse program before joining NYAPRS.
Credibility of peers
Some people think that even psychiatrists should have experience with mental illness in order to be better clinicians, says Miller. “I have heard the argument that ‘If you don’t have schizophrenia, you can’t treat me.’ I don’t buy it. If we’re going to think of these illnesses as real and biologically based, we have to embrace the concept that it doesn’t take one to treat one.”
But Miller does think someone who is trained and has been through the experience of mental illness has tremendous power to help professionals. “One of the things peers can do is give hope,” he says. “Professionals talk to patients and treat patients, but when you have someone who has been through it, walked the walk and talked the talk, that gives hope to people that they can do the same thing.”
Having a mental illness “isn’t necessary for recovery support, but it gives you more credibility,” says Deborah Fickling, a behavioral health ombudsman and peer advocate working in New Mexico. Peers are a part of the movement to counteract the traditional paternalism of psychiatry, in which patients are told “’You’ll do whatever I say because I’m the doctor and you’re the patient,’” she says.
‘Living examples of recovery’
Peers offer a unique contribution to recovery that is unavailable without them, says Rosenthal. “They act as living examples of recovery,” he said, giving hope to people who for years were told they couldn’t do it.” Peers also provide a personal relationship – a connection to a real person – who can give them a sense of independence in a health care system that often encourages dependency. “This is an honest and reciprocal relationship,” says Rosenthal.
And the hope isn’t only regarding clinical realities of mental illness. Peers help consumers understand that they too can deal with just plain reality, which can be difficult even for people without disabilities. For example, Fickling helps people navigate the complicated Medicaid system.“I share with people who are looking for help themselves that I’ve been there,” she says.
Agencies that hire peer specialists can get reimbursed by Medicaid for comprehensive community support services that are clearly not clinical, says Fickling. These services can be as simple as learning how to take a bus or how to open a bank account, she said. When the person with the mental illness is a child, there are also family support specialists who can help parents navigate the system.